This report examines the energy economies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. It discusses the opportunities and barriers for renewable energy deployment, formulating recommendations for the greater integration of renewables into the regional energy mix. The report provides insights on best practices in policy-making, project development and financing that are paving the way towards more sustainable energy systems. It also analyses the broader socio-economic benefits that can result from such a transition. Finally, the report discusses the potential for renewables-based desalination.